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The majority of acute sore throats (including pharyngitis and tonsillitis) are self‑limiting and often triggered by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The symptoms can last for around 1 week, but most people will get better within this time without antibiotics, regardless of cause (bacteria or virus).
If you are concerned it may be strep throat (and therefore benefit from antibiotics) use the FeverPAIN scoring system. This reduces antibiotic prescribing by 30%!
- Fever (during previous 24 hours)
- Purulence (pus on tonsils)
- Attend rapidly (within 3 days after onset of symptoms)
- Severely Inflamed tonsils
- No cough or coryza (inflammation of mucus membranes in the nose)
Each of the FeverPAIN criteria score 1 point (maximum score of 5). Higher scores suggest more severe symptoms and likely bacterial (streptococcal) cause.
0 or 1 =13 to 18% likelihood of isolating streptococcus.
2 or 3 = 34 to 40% likelihood of isolating streptococcus.
4 or 5 =62 to 65% likelihood of isolating streptococcus. Treat these with penicillin (unless allergic) for a 5 to 7 day course ONLY (new evidence). Consider giving the same dosage twice a day rather than 4 times a day to improve compliance.
There is new guidance from the UK’s Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Health with regards to taking the COCP. Please note this is accepted practice but is ‘off licence’ meaning the drug has not been formally approved for use in this way.
Most errors in taking the cocp occur in the pill free week. This pill free week is not necessary and should be shortened to 4 days.
Patients can now
- Run 2 or 3 packets together. This will give them regularity and regular menses. Only a 4 day break is needed.
- Continue running packets together until they get spotting. Then stop for 4 days.
- Continue running packets together whether there is spotting or not (like the POP).
Consider discussing this with your patients. It gives them more control and flexibility with their menses and reduces risk of pregnancy.
Podcast 16 (2) neonatal jaundice Click here for transcript
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PODCAST No 16 (1) Neonatal jaundice click here for the transcript
For a copy of the transcript click here
Podcast 14 Depression click here for the transcript
PODCAST No 13. Nephrotic syndrome click here for the transcript of the podcast
A 51 year old man attends a clinic with cellulitis. He has a history of psoriasis but hasn’t had any active psoriatic lesions for over 10 years. Whilst you are examining him and assessing the cellulitis, you notice numerous dark/purple growths on his foot. Several of them appear almost verruca-like. They are not painful, and are present on both sides of the feet. The man states they have been present for about a year. There are no signs of psoriasis on examination.
- What is the diagnosis?
- What further tests are required?
Answers and discussion will be posted in a couple of weeks….
- The lesions are typical of Kaposi’s sarcoma.
- Both the Kaposi’s and the cellulitis may be suggestive of an HIV infection. He needs an HIV test.
Warty growths can be seen in many skin conditions, including viral warts, seborrheic keratosis, squamous cell carcinomas, and Kaposi’s. Raised dark/purple lesions may be seen in lichen planus, cutaneous sarcoid, mycobacterial infection and Kaposi’s. So the 2 features together make Kaposi’s the most likely diagnosis.
The most important part of treating Kaposi’s is ART, and often lesions will get smaller as the CD4 count improves. In some cases, this may be the only treatment needed for Kaposi’s. However, if there are other symptoms such as pain or swelling, then other treatments may benefit. If there are only a few small lesions, then topical retinoids (benzyl peroxide) may help. The other option if lesions are very painful, or if lesions are problematic in the mouth or anus, is a referral for radiotherapy (depending on availability). Chemotherpay can also be considered for the most severe/numerous/symptomatic lesions, but again this would depend very much on local availability.
Kaposi’s may look different on African skin, so here are a few examples
Hi team,would really appreciate if anyone would help with a pdf file of browse signs and symptoms to surgery or any handbook for surgery. It would be helpful to some of the common surgical conditions we are facing.
Over the past month or so, I’ve had several cases asking about diagnosis or treatment of keloid scars, so here’s a quick guide….